Fascinating discoveries continue with the 'racetams. Nikeem Research in Italy offers some glimpses:
"The validation of nootropic pyrrolidones in neuropathic pain is significant."
"Among other pyrrolidinone nootropics, aniracetam produced significant analgesic effects."
"Together, these findings suggest that nefiracetam, and other cognition enhancers of the same pyrrolidinone nootropic class (Piracetam, Aniracetam, Oxiracetam), could be a good therapeutic tool against neuropathic pain, with no liabilities due to a possible involvement of the opioid system."
Nefiracetam and Leveracetam are not commonly available in the USA. Racetams in general have a long history of use, and are one of the few substances with essentially no known toxicity in humans.
Here is a second referenced and cited article by Clark Renwick Herniman and some relevant quotes:
"Aniracetam and nefiracetam are analogues of the drug piracetam (Gualtieri, et. al., 2002.). These drugs were originally developed to treat Alzheimer's disease although their action on N-type calcium channels may make them effective as analgesics as well (McGivern and McDonough, 2005). Aniracetam, 1-(p-anisoyl)-2-pyrrolidinone, is the older of the two drugs."
"Aniracetam has been shown to be a relatively non-toxic compound. Its LD50 is 4.5 g/kg orally in rats and 5.0 g/kg orally in mice while its ED50 in rodents is 10-100 mg/kg (Gouliaev and Senning, op. cit.). No toxic or teratogenic effects were found in the animal studies done with aniracetam (Ibid.)."
I will post some info on Pramiracetam in the next week or two.
PS- Relentless Improvement is the only supplier in the world to make publically available a full, independant 3rd party lab test result for their racetams. RI tests for microbial/fungal/yeast contamination, heavy metal contamination and purity via melting point and most importantly by HPLC analysis. *(Please read this CAREFULLY- nobody else tests for microbial/fungal/yeast)
If you use this product on a daily basis as I do, why risk contaminants? Better safe than sorry my friends!